These are some essential books and papers to quickly get up to speed on understanding the Mysteries of the Universe. I would consider these absolute must reading for the scholar, mystic, empiricist, atheist, theist, normal gal/guy or whoever you are as long as you are seeking a better understanding of the Universe. These works highlight very uncommon knowledge and history.
- Mathematics and the Divine by Teun Koetsier and Luc Bergmans (2005)
- Hegel and the Hermetic Tradition by Glenn Alexander Magee (2001, 2008)
- Reflections on Kurt Gödel by Hao Wang (1987, 1995)
- The Secret History of Hermes Trismegistus by Florian Ebeling, David Lorton, and Jan Assmann (2005, 2007)
- 100 years of Russell’s Paradox edited by Godehard Link
- Still a Kid at Heart by Gary Carter, Phil Pepe (2008)
Georg Cantor and A. Robinson related:
- Abraham Robinson: A Personal and Mathematical Odyssey by Joseph W. Dauben
- Georg Cantor: His Mathematics and Philosophy of the Infinite by Joseph W. Dauben
Also Recommended (for the specialist at least):
These works are also highly recommended but may be of more interest to the specialist. Still I list them as works to read after you are done with the list above. And who knows you might enjoy these even more depending on what you are looking for.
- The Ancient Egyptian Book of Thoth: A Demotic Discourse on Knowledge and Pendant to the Classical Hermetica by Richard Jasnow, Karl Th. Zauzich (2005)
- Kurt Gödel: Unpublished Philosophical Essays by Kurt Gödel, Francisco A. Rodriguez-Consuegra (1995)
- Mysticism and Philosophy by W.T. Stace, The classic work which has been used since as the definitive work on mysticism from a scholarly perspective:
These are some works dedicated to the study of Leibniz that I highly recommend.
- Leibniz and the Kabbalah by A.P. Coudert (1995, 2009)
- Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz: Philosophical Papers by G.W. Leibniz and L.E. Loemker (1956, 1975)
- The Fold: Leibniz and the Baroque by Gilles Deleuze (1988, 1994)
Books I have also found fascinating, if either for their content or their historical importance.
- Decline of the West by Oswald Spengler (1918, 2006)
- Deciphering the Cosmic Number by Arthur I. Miller (2009)
- Mankind: Have a Nice Day by Mick Foley (1999)